U.S. Vice Pres. Leon Jaworski, and promised that he would not fire him without congressional consent. and its two hungry newshounds, The U.S. had instead supported the Republic of China (ROC), which controlled Taiwan. House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAAC) in 1948–50, he took a leading role in the investigation of  Nixon sent a letter to Congress supporting a constitutional amendment to lower the voting age, and Congress quickly moved forward with a proposed constitutional amendment guaranteeing the 18 year-old vote. U.S. leaders did not attempt to block these price increases, as they believed that higher prices would help increase domestic production of oil. Despite his resounding victory, Nixon would soon be forced to resign in disgrace in the worst political scandal in United States history. The United States and China increased trade relations and established unofficial embassies in each other's respective capitals. What were Richard Nixon's accomplishments?  McGovern claimed that the "Nixon Administration is the most corrupt administration in our national history," but his attacks had little effect.  Nixon's major economic goal was to reduce inflation; the most obvious means of doing so was to end the war. , At the time Nixon took office, there were over 500,000 American soldiers in Southeast Asia.  By the end of 1971, 156,000 U.S. soldiers remained in Vietnam; 276 American soldiers serving in Vietnam were killed in the last six months of that year. After his campaign distributed “pink sheets” comparing Douglas’s voting record to that of Vito Marcantonio, a left-wing representative from New York, the Independent Review, a small Southern California newspaper, nicknamed him “Tricky Dick.” The epithet later became a favourite among Nixon’s opponents.  Gerald Ford, in his first public statement as president, declared, "My fellow Americans, our long national nightmare is over. After a heavily publicized investigation and televised hearings, Nixon was ordered by the Supreme Court to turn over tapes from the Oval Office that eventually provided concrete evidence of his involvement and later attempts to cover up his association with the crime.  Nixon entered the race for the 1968 Republican presidential nomination confident that, with the Democrats torn apart over the war in Vietnam, a Republican had a good chance of winning the presidency in November, although he expected the election to be as close as in 1960. Button from Richard M. Nixon's 1968 presidential campaign. As a member of the The Supreme Court ruled for the newspapers in the 1971 case of New York Times Co. v. United States, thereby allowing for the publication of the excerpts. Under his policy of “  These efforts failed, and Allende took office in November 1970.  Nixon was largely uninterested in environmental policy, but he did not oppose the goals of the environmental movement. Robert Bork, though a federal district court subsequently ruled the action illegal. Nevertheless, he appointed more women to administration positions than Lyndon Johnson had.  Another legacy, for a time, was a decrease in the power of the presidency as Congress passed restrictive legislation like the War Powers Act and the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974. With some of his supporters believed to be in favor of drug legalization, McGovern was perceived as standing for "amnesty, abortion and acid". Rather than becoming directly involved in conflicts, the United States would provide military and economic aid to nations that were subject to insurgency or aggression, or that were otherwise vital to U.S. strategic interests. It also provided for establishment of medical centers dedicated to clinical research and cancer treatment, 15 of them initially, whose work is coordinated by the National Cancer Institute. Richard Nixon (left) and John F. Kennedy during a live television broadcast of their fourth presidential debate, New York City, 1960. Eisenhower was willing to give Nixon a chance to clear himself but emphasized that Nixon needed to emerge from the crisis “as clean as a hound’s tooth.” On September 23, 1952, Nixon delivered a nationally televised address, the so-called “ Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), was substantially increased while Nixon was in office. Results of the American presidential election, 1972. The campaign was memorable for an unprecedented series of four televised debates between the two candidates.  The "Watergate hearings" were televised and widely watched. After Egypt and Syria experienced early successes in what became known as the Yom Kippur War, the United States began to supply massive amounts of military aid to Israel, as Nixon overrode Kissinger's early reluctance to provide strong support to Israel.  When the tapes were turned over a few weeks later, Nixon's lawyers revealed that one audio tape of conversations held in the White House on June 20, 1972 featured an 18½ minute gap. Despite expectations from some observers that Nixon would be a “do-nothing” president, his administration undertook a number of important reforms in welfare policy, civil rights, law enforcement, the environment, and other areas. These activities concerned the Soviets and Cubans, who feared Nixon might attack Cuba in violation of the understanding between Kennedy and Khrushchev which had ended the missile crisis. On August 5, in compliance with the Supreme Court’s ruling, Nixon submitted transcripts of a conversation taped on June 23, 1972, in which he discussed a plan to use the Central Intelligence Agency to block the FBI’s investigation of the Watergate break-in. He was elected to a second term on November 7, 1972 in one of the largest landslide election victories in American history.  During Nixon's final year in office, Congress undercut Nixon's détente policies by passing the Jackson–Vanik amendment.  As part of the Nixon Doctrine, the U.S. greatly increased arms sales to the Middle East—particularly Israel, Iran, and Saudi Arabia. In the area of civil rights, Nixon’s administration instituted so-called “set aside” policies to reserve a certain percentage of jobs for minorities on federally funded construction projects—the first “ “Thomas Railsback, the veteran Republican congressman who broke with his party and helped draw up the articles of impeachment against President Richard Nixon in 1974, has died at 87.” “Railsback represented Illinois’ 19th Congressional District for 16 years and was the second ranking member on the House Judiciary Committee when it was conducting the impeachment inquiry into Nixon. Faced with the near-certain prospect of impeachment by the House and conviction in the Senate, Nixon announced his resignation on the evening of August 8, 1974, effective at noon the next day.  Nixon attempted to recruit a prominent Democrat like Humphrey or Sargent Shriver into his administration, but was unsuccessful until early 1971, when former Governor John Connally of Texas became Secretary of the Treasury. He was succeeded by Gerald Ford, whom he had appointed Vice President after Spiro Agnew was forced to resign. Met with General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev, Chairman Nikolai Podgorny and Premier Alexei Kosygin. He was re-nominated at the August 1972 Republican National Convention, receiving 1,347 of the 1,348 votes. Salvador Allende, elected in 1970. Bumper sticker with the slogan “Nixon's the One!” for Richard M. Nixon's 1968 presidential campaign. He won over 60% of the popular vote, receiving 47,169,911 votes to McGovern's 29,170,383, and won an even larger Electoral College victory, garnering 520 electoral votes to 17 for McGovern. , In December 1969, Nixon somewhat reluctantly signed the Tax Reform Act of 1969 despite its inflationary provisions; the act established the alternative minimum tax, which applied to wealthy individuals who used deductions to limit their tax liabilities. Had he taken this step earlier, Humphrey might have won the election, as polls showed him gaining rapidly on Nixon in the final days of the campaign.  Once American combat support ended, there was a brief truce, but fighting quickly broke out again, as both South Vietnam and North Vietnam violated the truce. Richard Nixon was elected the 37th President of the United States (1969-1974) after previously serving as a U.S. Representative and a U.S. Nixon denied any involvement in the break in, but, after a tape emerged revealing that Nixon had known about the White House connection to the Watergate burglaries shortly after they occurred, the House of Representatives initiated impeachment proceedings. , During the 1972 Democratic primaries, Nixon and his allies believed that Senator McGovern would be the weakest plausible Democratic nominee in the general election, and the CRP worked to bolster McGovern's strength.  Nixon's goal of closer relations with China and the Soviet Union was closely linked to ending the Vietnam War, since he hoped that rapprochement with the two leading Communist powers would pressure North Vietnam into accepting a favorable settlement. 3. " Political scientist Jussi Hanhimäki disagrees, saying that Nixon's diplomacy was merely a continuation of the Cold War policy of containment by diplomatic, rather than military means. Yet even in a spirit of historical revisionism, no simple verdict is possible. February 1972: Richard Nixon shaking hands with Zhou Enlai after landing in China. In December 1972, Nixon ordered another massive bombing campaign, Operation Linebacker II; domestic criticism of the operation convinced Nixon of the necessity to quickly reach a final agreement with North Vietnam. , Nixon took office in the midst of the Cold War, a sustained period of geopolitical tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. During his presidency, Nixon also signed the Clean Air Act of 1970, and the Clean Water Act.  On May 24, 1972, Nixon approved a five-year cooperative program between NASA and the Soviet space program, culminating in the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, a joint mission of an American Apollo and a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft in 1975. In televised committee hearings, Dean accused the president of involvement in the cover-up, and others testified to illegal activities by the administration and the campaign staff, including the use of federal agencies to harass Nixon’s perceived enemies (many of whose names appeared on an “enemies list” of prominent politicians, journalists, entertainers, academics, and others) and acts of politically inspired espionage by a special White House investigative unit, known as the “plumbers” because they investigated news leaks. , Nixon submitted two significant medical research initiatives to Congress in February 1971. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/04/opinion/trump-nixon.html , The Nixon years witnessed the first large-scale efforts to desegregate the nation's public schools. Carl Bernstein and , Early in his first term, Nixon pressured Israel over its nuclear program, and his administration developed a peace plan in which Israel would withdraw from the territories it conquered in the Six-Day War.  Conservative attorney Charles Colson The well-respected Ford was confirmed by Congress and took office on December 6, 1973. The Speaker of the House, Carl Albert of Oklahoma, was next in line to the presidency during the 57-day vacancy. Richard M. Nixon (right) accepting the Republican Party's U.S. presidential nomination in 1968.  On October 10, 1973, Agnew pleaded no contest to tax evasion and became the second Vice President (after John C. Calhoun) to resign from office. The pardon of Richard Nixon was a presidential proclamation issued by President of the United States Gerald Ford on September 8, 1974. ", "Siena's 6th Presidential Expert Poll 1982 – 2018", "McCarthy galvanized opposition to Vietnam War", University of Virginia Center for Politics, "Naysayer To The Nattering Nabobs: Spiro T. Agnew, 1918-1996", Nixon Tried to Spoil Johnson’s Vietnam Peace Talks in ’68, Notes Show, "Alexander M. Haig Jr., 85, Forceful Aide to 2 Presidents, Dies", "George Beall, Prosecutor Who Brought Down Agnew, Dies at 79", "Recalling the Nixon-Kennedy health plan", "Democrats' health plans echo Nixon's failed GOP proposal", "Nixon Plan for Negro Construction Jobs Is Lagging", "Special Message to the Congress Proposing a National Health Strategy", "History of the National Cancer Institute", "Postal Reorganization Act Law and Legal Definition", "Intent and Its Alternatives: Defending the New Voting Rights Act", "Old Enough To Fight, Old Enough To Vote", "Making More Enemies than We Kill?  He had previously approved a secret B-52 carpet bombing campaign of North Vietnamese positions in Cambodia in March 1969 (code-named Operation Menu), without the consent of Cambodian leader Norodom Sihanouk. At the Republican convention in " Political historian and pollster Douglas Schoen argues that Nixon was the most important American figure in post-war U.S. politics, while constitutional law professor Cass Sunstein noted in 2017, "If you are listing the five most consequential Presidents in American history, you could make a good argument that Nixon belongs on the list. Richard Nixon. The House Judiciary Committee voted along party lines to issue subpoenas and organize staffers. He then announced temporary wage and price controls, allowed the dollar to float against other currencies, and ended the convertibility of the dollar into gold. The Republican Party was an organization based on ideals and idealism, unlike the pusillanimous hollow shell it has today been reduced to by Trump and his cronies. Two weeks later, Johnson told a stunned nation that he would not seek a second term. Rehnquist would later succeed Burger as chief justice in 1986. Nixon was born on January 9, 1913, in Yorba Linda, California. As the Watergate scandal heated up in mid-1973, Vice President Spiro Agnew became a target in an unrelated investigation of corruption in Baltimore County, Maryland of public officials and architects, engineering, and paving contractors. Outside the convention hall, thousands of young antiwar activists who had gathered to protest the Vietnam War clashed violently with police.  With the failure of the peace talks, Nixon implemented a strategy of "Vietnamization," which consisted of increased U.S. aid and Vietnamese troops taking on a greater combat role in the war. In 1970, he signed the National Environmental Policy Act and established the Environmental Protection Agency, which was charged with coordinating and enforcing federal environmental policy. Nixon believed that this system negatively affected the U.S. balance of trade; the U.S. had experienced its first negative balance of trade of the 20th century in 1971. Public opinion steadily turned against the war following 1967, and by 1970 only a third of Americans believed that the U.S. had not made a mistake by sending troops to fight in Vietnam. However, he faced a Democratic Congress that did not share his goals and, in some cases, enacted legislation over his veto. ", Ken Hughes of the Miller Center of Public Affairs notes that "scholars who classify [Nixon] as liberal, moderate, or conservative find ample evidence for each label and conclusive evidence for none of them...In foreign and domestic policy, Nixon's inclinations were conservative, but he assumed the presidency at the end of the 1960s, liberalism's postwar peak. Though Watergate remained in the news during the 1972 campaign, it had relatively little effect on the election. , One of Nixon's major promises in the 1968 campaign was to address what he described as the "welfare mess." This increased production failed to materialize, and by 1973 the U.S. consumed over one and a half times the oil that it produced domestically.  Nixon's initial cabinet also contained an unusually small number of Ivy League graduates, with the exception of George P. Shultz, who held three different cabinet positions during Nixon's presidency. According to Walter Isaacson, soon after taking office, Nixon had concluded that the Vietnam War could not be won and he was determined to end the war quickly.  Nixon re-imposed price controls in June 1973, echoing his 1971 plan, as food prices rose; this time, he focused on agricultural exports and limited the freeze to 60 days. Sources: Electoral and popular vote totals based on data from the Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives and.  In reaction to the Easter Offensive, Nixon ordered a massive bombing campaign in North Vietnam known as Operation Linebacker.  Though détente was unpopular with many on the left due to humanitarian concerns, and with many on the right due to concerns about being overly accommodating to the Soviets, Nixon's policies helped significantly lower Cold War tensions even after he left office. Presidential candidate Dwight Eisenhower didn’t have a preference for a running mate, and party leaders favored Nixon for his anti-Communist stance and his strength in California. Nixon stated that he was resigning for the good of the country as he had lost the political support in Congress necessary to govern effectively, and asked the nation to support the new president, Gerald Ford.  McCarthy narrowly lost to Johnson in the first Democratic Party primary on March 12 in New Hampshire, and the closeness of the results startled the party establishment and spurred Senator Robert F. Kennedy of New York to enter the race. ", Russell E. Train, "The environmental record of the Nixon administration. Attended the memorial services for former President Georges Pompidou.  Nixon, however, was unwilling to keep funding for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the high level seen through the 1960s, and rejected NASA Administrator Thomas O. Paine's ambitious plans for the establishment of a permanent base on the moon by the end of the 1970s and the launch of a manned expedition to Mars in the 1980s. In January, representatives Martha Griffiths and James C. Corman introduced the Health Security Act, a universal national health insurance program providing comprehensive benefits without any cost sharing backed by the AFL-CIO and UAW. 1952, Nixon won nomination as vice president on a ticket with  Congress's response came in the form of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974, which established a new budget process, and included a procedure providing congressional control over the impoundment of funds by the president. Months after taking office, Nixon nominated federal appellate judge Warren E. Burger to succeed Warren, and the Senate quickly confirmed Burger. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.  Though Nixon's overall proposal failed, Congress did adopt one aspect of the FAP, as it voted to establish the Supplemental Security Income program, which provides aid to low-income individuals who are aged or disabled. He was accused of accepting kickbacks in exchange for contracts while serving as Baltimore county executive, then when he was Governor of Maryland and Vice President. “The Richard Nixon I met back in 1960,” Jackie Robinson concluded, “bore no resemblance to Richard Nixon as president.” Now, in 2020, President Trump is outdoing Nixon. Nixon, mired in Watergate, signed the legislation in July 1974. Johnson's Great Society programs and the Vietnam War effort had resulted in large budget deficits.  He sought some arrangement which would permit American forces to withdraw, while leaving South Vietnam secure against attack.  The controls and the accompanying food shortages—as meat disappeared from grocery stores and farmers drowned chickens rather than sell them at a loss—only fueled more inflation. In addition, funding for many federal civil rights agencies, in particular the By 1971 the Soviets were more amenable to improved relations with the United States, and in May 1972 Nixon paid a state visit to Moscow to sign 10 formal agreements, the most important of which were the nuclear arms limitation treaties known as One of Nixon's nominees, corporate attorney Lewis F. Powell Jr., was easily confirmed. Although Nixon … In 1950 Nixon successfully ran for the United States Senate against Democratic Rep. U.S. Pres. , After the Supreme Court denied the Nixon administration's request to prevent the publication of the Pentagon Papers, Nixon and Ehrlichman established the White House Special Investigations Unit, also known as the "Plumbers." In a memorable postelection news conference, he announced his retirement from politics and attacked the press, declaring that it would not “have Dick Nixon to kick around anymore.” He moved to New York City to practice law and over the next few years built a reputation as an expert in foreign affairs and a leader who could appeal to both moderates and conservatives in his party. To great public approval, he began phased troop withdrawals by the end of 1969, sapping the strength of the domestic anti-war movement. Due to the family’s limited finances, Nixon had to … The United States and the Soviet Union continued to compete for worldwide influence, but tensions had eased considerably since the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. Nixon promulgated the Nixon Doctrine, which called for indirect assistance by the United States rather than direct U.S. commitments as seen in the ongoing Vietnam War.  Despite Nixon's victory, Republicans failed to win control of either the House or the Senate in the concurrent congressional elections. Met afterward with interim President, Official visit. John F. Kennedy. Over 30,000 U.S. military personnel serving in the Vietnam War had been killed since 1961, with approximately half of those deaths occurring in 1968. , Nixon proposed reducing the number of government departments to eight. As part of this policy, Nixon signed the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and SALT I, two landmark arms control treaties with the Soviet Union. Angered by the amendment, the Soviets canceled the 1972 trade agreement and reduced the number of Jews who were permitted to emigrate. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login).  Sent to the states for ratification on March 23, 1971, the proposal became the Twenty-sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution on July 1, 1973, after being ratified by the requisite number of states (38). Nestled on 213 acres of meadow, woodland and aquatic habitats Nixon Park supports a wide variety of plant and animal life.  This market-based system would, Nixon argued, "build on the strengths of the private system. Nixon's role in the debate over the Taft-Hartley Bill revealed his strong party perception of policy making and brought him into direct conflict with the federal bureaucracy for the first time in his political career. The White House refused both subpoenas, citing executive privilege once more. He pursued this policy by allowing the courts to receive the criticism for desegregation orders, which Nixon's Justice Department would then enforce. Delivered several public addresses. Richard M. Nixon (right) accepting the Republican Party's U.S. presidential nomination in 1968. Richard M. Nixon (left) with Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai, Beijing, 1972. Richard Nixon was the second of five children born to Frank Nixon, a service station owner and grocer, and Hannah Milhous Nixon, whose devout Quakerism would exert a strong influence on her son. Addressed the. , McGovern intended to sharply reduce defense spending and supported amnesty for draft evaders as well as abortion rights.  He promised "peace with honor" in the Vietnam War but did not release specifics of how he would accomplish this goal, resulting in media intimations that he must have a "secret plan". The campaign was memorable for an unprecedented series of four televised debates between the two candidates.  Other significant regulatory legislation enacted during Nixon's presidency included the Noise Control Act and the Consumer Product Safety Act.  On election day, Nixon defeated Humphrey by about 500,000 votes – 43.4% to 42.7%; Wallace received 13.5% of the vote. Winning one of the closest elections in U.S. history, Republican challenger Richard Nixon defeats Vice President Hubert Humphrey.  The CRP especially targeted Muskie, secretly employing Muskie's driver as a spy. By it, Ford granted to Richard Nixon, his predecessor, a full and unconditional pardon for any crimes that he might have committed against the United States as president. Dwight D. Eisenhower. Richard Nixon as Party Leader, 1969–73 465 , In 1971, Nixon ordered incursions into Laos to attack North Vietnamese bases, provoking further domestic unrest. Richard Nixon was the 37th president of the United States. They sought improved relations with the Soviet Union to make…. An intensive 11-day bombing campaign of Hanoi and other North Vietnamese cities in late December (the “Christmas bombings”) was followed by more negotiations, and a new agreement was finally reached in January 1973 and signed in  The second initiative, focused on Sickle-cell disease (SCD), resulted in passage of the National Sickle Cell Anemia Control Act in May 1972. Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus both resigned instead of complying with Nixon's order, but Robert Bork, the next-in-line at the Justice Department, fired Cox.  Nixon's speech contained no admission of wrongdoing; biographer Conrad Black opined that "What was intended to be an unprecedented humiliation for any American president, Nixon converted into a virtual parliamentary acknowledgement of almost blameless insufficiency of legislative support to continue. He did this to avoid impeachment. Elliot Richardson to fire Cox, and Richardson resigned rather than comply.  The White House and Cox remained at loggerheads until the "Saturday Night Massacre" October 23, 1973, when Nixon demanded that the Justice Department fire Cox.  The first, popularly referred to as the War on Cancer, resulted in passage that December of the National Cancer Act, which injected nearly $1.6 billion (equivalent to $9 billion in 2016) in federal funding to cancer research over a three-year period.  Nixon used his authority under the 25th Amendment to nominate Gerald Ford for vice president. The final round of diplomatic notes, reaffirming the 1962 accord, were exchanged in November. The Philadelphia Plan required government contractors in Philadelphia to hire a minimum number of minority workers. The same force -- cautionary tale, here -- also destroyed him. desegregation until federal court orders forced his hand, his administration drastically reduced the percentage of African American students attending all-black schools. Their candidate, John Ashbrook, was a … Kennedy was assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan in June 1968, leaving Humphrey and McCarthy as the two remaining major candidates in the race. Nixon applied to join the FBI 32 years before he was elected president. After the 1973 Arab-Israeli war (the “Yom Kippur War”), Kissinger’s back-and-forth visits between the Arab states and Israel (dubbed “shuttle diplomacy”) helped to broker disengagement agreements but did little to improve U.S. relations with the Arabs.  In foreign affairs, Nixon enhanced the importance of the National Security Council, which was led by National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger. From the office of vice President after Nixon resigned permitted to emigrate Johnson... J. Kotlowski, `` the environmental movement Jackson–Vanik amendment members in the race the in. About the details of each CRP undertaking, but this agreement never fully took force War... 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